Needs-Based Problem Solving

A primary focus of the IDRC is to make monitoring tools accessible and available to LEAs as they observe and inform changes within their corporations. Utilizing data, observations, and assessments, schools are better equipped to address disproportionality and inequality and implement new policies and practices to create long-term change. 


Root Cause Analysis

Root cause analysis helps guide reflection of LEA staff on the most important factors that contribute to disproportionality as they review their policies, practices, and procedures. This analysis enables LEAs to identify areas of concern and guide the allocation of resources to those areas of concern. 

Documents from This Webinar

Data analysis workbook Doc

Disproportionate Representation Webinar 1_ 2.24.17 Doc


Root Cause Analysis Guiding Questions Doc

Success Gaps Rubric Doc

Root Cause Tools and Resources


Root Cause Tools

Using a Research-Based Process to Develop a Plan Doc

Behavioral Support Root Cause Analysis Workbook Doc


Root causes of discipline disparities


Osher, D., Fisher, D., Amos, L., Katz J., Dwyer, K., Duffey, T., & Colombi, G.D. (2015). Addressing the root causes of disparities in school discipline: An educator’s action planning guide. Washington, D.C.: National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments. Doc

Voulgarides, C.K. & Zwerger, N. (2014) Identifying the Root Causes of Disproportionality. New York, NY: Metropolitan Center for Research on Equity and the Transformation of Schools at NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development. Doc

Systems Change

Systems Change Tools and Resources


There are currently no additional tools listed on this topic.


Equity and PBIS

IDEA Success Gaps Toolkit

Addressing Over-Representation of African American Students in Special Education Doc

Methods for Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education

Using Discipline Data within SWPBIS to Identify and Address Disproportionality: A Guide for School Teams Doc


Kowalski, T. J., Lasley II, T. J., & Mahoney, J. W. (2008). Data driven decisions and school leadership: Best practices for school improvement. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Kozleski, E. B. & Zion, S. (2006). Preventing disproportionality by strengthening district policies and procedures: An assessment and strategic planning process. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Culturally Responsive Education Systems. Doc

U.S. Department of Education. (2014). Guiding principles: A resource guide for improving school climate and discipline. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Doc

Noltemeyer, A.L. & Mcloughlin, C.S. (2012). Disproportionality in education and special education: A guide to creating more equitable learning environments. Springfield, IL: Thomas Books.

Note: Resources with a Doc are available as a downloadable file