Interventions and Solutions

The IDRC provides tools and resources to school corporations as they address sources of inequality, including those that are rooted in existing policies, practices, and procedures. These resources address specific issues related to culturally responsive change, and offer practical, evidence-based solutions that LEAs can implement for long-term change.


School Discipline and Disparities Tools and Resources


Activities to Teach and Implement New Behavior Doc

Classroom Management Self-Assessment Doc

Connecting With Students Doc

Preventing Defiance Doc

School Discipline Resource Guide Doc

Good Behavior Game

Planning and implementing evidence-based interventions

Teaching restorative practices in the classroom Doc


Discipline Disparities: Myths and Facts

How Educators Can Eradicate Disparities in School Discipline: A Briefing Paper on School-Based Interventions Doc

New and Developing Research on Disparities in Discipline Doc

Promising Programs for Reducing Disparities

Race is Not Neutral: Understanding and Addressing Disproportionality in School Discipline Doc

School Discipline Planning

School Discipline Resource Guide Doc

Achievements Mentoring

Center for Civil Rights Remedies

Check and Connect

Counseling versus punishment

Fix School Discipline

Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline Doc

I Can Problem Solve (ICPS)

International Institute for Restorative Practices

National Association of School Psychologists resource directory

Office of Safe and Healthy Students

Restorative Justice

Safer, Saner Schools

San Francisco United School District Restorative Practices Plan

Promising Programs for Reducing Disparities

School Discipline Data Indicators: A Guide for Districts and Schools Doc


Skiba, R. & Sprague, J. (2008). Safety without suspensions. Educational Leadership, 66(1), 38-43. Doc

Girvan, E.J., Gion, C., McIntosh, K., Smolkowski, K. (2017). The relative contribution of subjective office referrals to racial disproportionality in school discipline. School Psychology Quarterly, 32(3), 392-404. Doc

McIntosh, K., Ellwood, K., McCall, L. & Girvan, E.J. (2017, June). Using discipline data to enhance equity in school discipline. Intervention in School and Clinic, 1-7.

Gregory, A., Hafen, C.A., Ruzek, E., Mikami, A.Y., Allen, J.P., & Pianta, R.C. (2016). Closing the racial discipline gap in classrooms by changing teacher practice. School Psychology Review, 45(2), 171-191.
Available here

Losen, D.J. (Ed.) (2015). Closing the discipline gap: Equitable remedies for excessive exclusion. New York, NY: Teachers College.

Owen, J., Wettach, J., & Hoffman, K.C. (2015). Instead of suspension: Alternative strategies for effective school discipline. Durham, N.C.: Duke Center for Child and Family Policy and Duke Law School. Doc

Smith, D., Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2015). Better than carrots or sticks: Restorative practices for positive classroom management. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Restorative Practices Working Group. (2014). Restorative practices: Fostering healthy relationships and promoting positive discipline in schools. New York, NY: The Atlantic Philanthropies. Doc

Dupper, D., Theriot, M.T., & Craun, S.W. (2009). Reducing out-of-school suspensions: Practical guidelines for school social workers. Children & Schools, 31(1), 6-14.

Documents from This Webinar

Disproportionate Representation of_Autism Doc

Should we believe the CDC prevalence numbers Doc

Autism Identifcation Doc

Autism Educational-vs-Medical Doc

CLD and ASD_tools Doc

ASD Checklist Doc

Autism Tools and Resources


There are currently no additional tools listed on this topic.


Racial Disparities in the Identification of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder Doc

Article 7 Eligibility Areas

Autism support

Color of Autism foundation

FAR Foundation for Autism Resources

Hands in Autism

Indiana Resource Center for Autism

Medical Diagnosis of ASD vs. Educational Diagnosis of ASD Doc


Arnold, C. (25 May 2016). Autism’s race problem. Pacific Standard.
Available here

Nowell, K.P., Brewton, C.M., Allain, E., & Mire, S.S. (2015). The influence of demographic factors on the identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A review and call for research. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2(3), 300-309.

Harris, B., Barton, E. E., & Albert, C. (2014). Evaluating autism diagnostic and screening tools for cultural and linguistic responsiveness. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 44(6), 1275-1287.

Marks, S.U. & Kurth, J. (2013). Examination of disproportionality of autism in school-aged populations in the U.S. The Journal of the International Association of Special Education, 14(1), 9-21.

Sullivan, A. L. (2013). School-based autism identification: Prevalence, racial disparities, and systemic correlates. School Psychology Review, 42(3), 298-316.

Travers J. C., Tincani M., & Krezmien M. (2013). A multiyear national profile of racial disparity in autism identification. Journal of Special Education, 47(1), 41-49.

Travers, J., Krezmien, M. P., Mulcahy, C., & Tincani, M. (2012). Racial disparities in administrative autism identification across the United States during 2000 and 2007. The Journal of Special Education, 48(3), 155-166.

Tek, S. & Landa, R. J. (2012). Differences in autism symptoms between minority and non-minority toddlers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(9), 1967-1973.
Available here

Morrier, M. J. & Hess, K. L. (2010). Ethnic differences in autism eligibility in the United States public schools. Journal of Special Education, 46(1), 41-63.

Becker H., Seay P., & Morrison J. (2009). Differences in the prevalence of autism among Black, Hispanic, and White students. Multicultural Learning and Teaching, 4(1), 45–57.

Mandell, David S. et al. (2009). Racial/Ethnic disparities in the identification of children with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Public Health, 99(3), 493-498.
Available here

Palmer R. F., Walker T., Mandell D., Bayles B., & Miller C. S. (2009). Explaining low rates of autism among Hispanic schoolchildren in Texas. American Journal of Public Health,100, 270–272.
Available here

Tincani M., Travers J. C., & Boutot A. (2009). Race, culture, and autism spectrum disorder: Understanding the role of diversity in successful educational interventions. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 34, 81–90.

Morrier, M. J., Hess, K. L., & Heflin, L. J. (2008). Ethnic disproportionality in students with autism spectrum disorders. Multicultural Education, 16(1), 31-38. Doc

Cognitive Disability Tools and Resources


Indiana Statewide Assessment Resource Guide and Toolkit Doc


Alternate Achievement Standards for Students with the Most Significant Cognitive Disabilities Doc

Alternative Assessments

Indiana Standards Tools for Alternative Reporting (ISTAR)

Indiana Department of Education Project Success


Richards, S., Brady, M.P., Taylor, R.L. (2015). Cognitive and intellectual disabilities: historical perspectives, current practices, and future directions. New York: Routledge.

Jasper, A.D. & Bouck, E.C. (2013). Disproportionality among African American students at the secondary level: Examining the MID disability category. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 48(1), 31-40.

Kleinert, H.L. & Kearns, J.F. (2010) Alternative Assessment for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities: An Educator’s Guide. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.


Gage, N., Gersten, R., Sugai, G., & Newman-Gonchar, R. (2013). Disproportionality of English learners with emotional and/or behavioral disorders: A comparative meta-analysis with English learners with learning disabilities. Behavioral Disorders, 38(3), 123-136.

McKenna, J. (2013). The disproportionate representation of African Americans in programs for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 57(4), 206-211.

Wiley, A.L., Brigham, F.J., Kauffman, J.M., & Bogan, J.E. (2013). Disproportionate poverty, conservatism, and the disproportionate identification of minority students with emotional and behavior disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(4), 29-50.

Oelrich, N.M. (2012). A new idea: Ending racial disparity in the identification of students with emotional disturbance. South Dakota Law Review, 57, 9-41.

Tan, P., Vaiouli, P., & Ochoa, T.A. (2011). Emotional and behavioral disorders: Promoting prevention and positive interventions in school settings. Center for Evaluation Education Policy, 9(5), 1-12. Doc

Hart, J.E., Cramer, E.D., Harry, B., Klingner, J.K., Sturges, K.M. (2009). The continuum of “troubling” to “troubled” behavior: Exploratory case studies of African American students in programs for emotional disturbance. Remedial and Special Education, 31(3), 148-162.

Hernandez, J.E., Ramanathan, A.K., Harr, J., & Socias, M. (2008). Study of the effects of an intervention to reduce the disproportionate identification in the category of emotional disturbance in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 21(2), 64-74.

Decker, D.M., Dona, D.P., & Christenson, S.L. (2007). Behaviorally at-risk African American students: The importance of student-teacher relationships for student outcomes. Journal of School Psychology, 45(1), 83-109.

Harris-Murri, N., King, K., & Rostenberg, D. (2006). Reducing disproportionate minority representation in special education programs for students with emotional disturbances: Toward a culturally responsive response to interventional model. Education and Treatment of Children, 29(4), 779-799.

Documents from This Webinar

8 SLD Considerations Doc

Exclusionary Factors Worksheet Doc

File review Checklist Doc

Webinar on SLD Doc

TAS Summary with Reflection Questions Doc

Team Accomplishment Sheet Doc

Specific Learning Disability Tools and Resources


SLD Evaluation: Linking Cognitive Assessment Data to Learning Strategies


There are currently no additional resources listed on this topic.


Blumberg Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Special Education. (2011). Considerations in Specific Learning Disability evaluation and eligibility determination. Terre Haute, IN: Effective Evaluation Resource Center. Doc

Johnson, E. S. (2014). Identification and evaluation of learning disabilities: The school team’s guide to student success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.



Wright, B.L. & Ford, D.Y. (2016). “This Little Light of Mine”: Creating early childhood education classroom experiences for African American boys PreK-3. Journal of African American Males in Education, 7(1), 5-19. Doc

Caldarella, P., Page, N.W., & Gunter, L. (2012). Early childhood educators’ perceptions of conscious discipline. Education, 132(3), 589-599.

Perry, D. F., Holland, C., Darling-Kuria, N., & Nadiv, S. (2011). Challenging behavior and expulsion from child care: The role of mental health consultation. Zero to Three, November, 4-11.
Available here

Gilliam, W.S. (2008, January). Implementing policies to reduce the likelihood of preschool expulsion (FCD Policy Brief, No. 7). Doc

Gilliam, W.S. & Shahar, G. (2006). Preschool and child care expulsion and suspension: Rates and predictors in one state. Infants & Young Children, 19(3), 228-245. Doc

Race and Bias

Derman-Sparks, L., LeeKeenan, D., & Nimmo, J. (2014). Leading anti-bias early childhood programs: A guide for change. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Husband, Jr., T. (2011). “I don’t see color”: Challenging assumptions about discussing race with young children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(6), 365-371.

Kidd, J.K., Sanchez, S.Y., & Thorp, E.K. (2008). Defining moments: Developing culturally responsive dispositions and teaching practices in early childhood preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(2), 316-329.

English Language Learners Tools and Resources


Performance Assessments for English Language Learners Doc

Considerations for English Language Learners


There are currently no additional resources listed on this topic.


Fletcher, T.V. & Navarrete, L.A. (2017). Learning disabilities or difference: A critical look at issues associated with the misidentification and placement of Hispanic students in special education programs. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 30(1), 30-38.

Wisconsin Center for Education Research. (2017, May). Identifying ELLs with Specific Learning Disabilities: Facts, advice, and resources for school teams. Madison, WI: WiDA.
Available here

Solano-Flores, G. (2016). Assessing English Language Learners: Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge.

Burr, E., Haas, E., & Ferriere, K. (2015, July). Identifying and supporting English learner students with learning disabilities: Key issues in the literature and state practice. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Doc

Fernandez, N. & Inserra, A. (2013). Disproportionate classification of ESL students in US special education. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, 17(2), 1-22.

Park, Y. & Thomas, R. (2012). Educating English-language learners with special needs: Beyond cultural and linguistic considerations. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(9), 52-58. Doc

Linn, D. & Hemmer, L. (2011). English language learner disproportionality in special education for the scholar-practitioner. Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 1(1), 70-80.
Available here

Shifrer, D., Muller, C., & Callahan, R. (2011). Disproportionality and learning disabilities: Parsing apart race, socioeconomic status, and language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(3), 246-257.
Available here

Sullivan, A.L. (2011). Disproportionality in special education identification and placement of English language learners. Exceptional Children, 77(3), 317-334. Doc

Zacarian, D. (2011). Transforming schools for English learners: A comprehensive framework for school leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Connor, M.H. & Boskin, J. (2010). Overrepresentation of bilingual and poor children in special education: A continuing problem. Journal of Children and Poverty, 7(1), 23-32.

Zetlin, A., Beltran, D., Salcido, P., Gonzalez, T., & Reyes, T. (2010). Building a pathway of optimal support for English language learners in special education. Teacher Education and Special Education, 34(1), 59-70.

Klingner, J.K., Artiles, A.J., & Barletta, L.M. (2006). English language learners who struggle with reading: Language acquisition or LD? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 108-128.
Available here

Rueda, R. & Windmueller, M.P. (2006). English language learners, LD, and overrepresentation. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 99-107.
Available here

Wilkinson, C.Y., Ortiz, A.A., Robertson, P.M., Kushner, M.I. (2006). English language learners with reading-related LD: Linking data from multiple sources to make eligibility determinations. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 129-141.

Artiles, A.J., Rueda, R., Salazar, J.J., & Higareda, I. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283-300. Doc

Figueroa, R.A. & Newsome, P. (2006). The diagnosis of LD in English Learners. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(3), 206-214.

Note: Resources with a Doc are available as a downloadable file