Culturally Responsive Practices

To be effective in addressing disproportionality, educators, staff members, and district leadership acknowledge cultural differences and the impact of those differences on teaching and learning.  LEAs use that knowledge to understand how perspectives rooted in culture, race, or ethnicity, can impact a student's ability to achieve. Towards that end, effective LEAs commit to implementing culturally responsive policies, practices, and, procedures in order to create a culturally inclusive learning climate for all students.

Behavioral Tools and Resources


There are currently no additional tools listed on this topic.


Wisconsin RtI Center


Bal, A. (2015). Culturally responsive positive behavioral interventions and supports (WCER Working Paper No. 2015-9). Retrieved from University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin Center for Education Research website.
Available here

Eber, L., Upreti, G. & Rose, J. (2010). Addressing ethnic disproportionality in school discipline through positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS). Building Leadership, 17(8). Doc

Kauffman, J.M., Conroy, M., Gardner III, R., & Oswald, D. (2008). Cultural sensitivity in the application of behavior principles to education. Education and the Treatment of Children, 31(2), 239-262.

Culturally Responsive Teaching Tools and Resources


Cultural Mismatch Guiding Questions Doc

NEA Care: Culture, Abilities, Resilience, Effort: Strategies for Closing the Achievement Gaps Doc

Cultural Competence and Equity Guide Doc

Equitable Classroom Practices Observation Checklist Doc

Checklist for Culturally Responsive Practices in Schools Doc

Our Family Dinners Doc

Please Don’t Let Me Be Misunderstood Doc

Reflecting Gender, Class, and Race Doc


Teaching Tolerance

Double-Check: A Framework of Cultural Responsiveness Applied to Classroom Behavior Doc

The Equity Alliance webinar series on creating inclusive classrooms

Teaching Tolerance

Teaching Diverse Learners

Indiana School Climate and Cultural Awareness Guidelines

Multiculturalism and Teaching Diversity in the Classroom

Culturally Relevant Instruction: Teaching for Everyone's Success

Culturally Responsive Best Practices in Addressing Disproportionality Doc


Villegas, A.M. (2012). Collaboration between multicultural and special teacher educators: Pulling together the threads in the conversation. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(4), 286-290.

Shealey, M.K., McHatton, P.A., & Wilson, V. (2011). Moving beyond disproportionality: The role of culturally responsive teaching in special education. Teaching Education, 22(4), 377-396.

Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York, NY: Teacher’s College Press.

King, K.A., Artiles, A.J., & Kozleski, E.B. (2009). Professional learning for culturally responsive teaching. Tempe, AZ: The Equity Alliance at Arizona State University. Doc

Cartledge, G. & Kourea, L. (2008). Culturally responsive classrooms for culturally diverse students with and at risk for disabilities. Exceptional Children, 74(3), 351-371.

Fielder, C.R., Chiang, B., Van Haren, B., Jorgensen, J., Halberg, S., & Boreson, L. (2008). Culturally responsive practices in schools: A checklist to address disproportionality in special education. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(5), 52-59. Doc

Adams, M., Bell, L.A., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice. New York, NY: Routledge.

Delpit, L. (2006). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York, NY: The New Press.

Klotz, M.B. (2006). Culturally competent schools: Guidelines for secondary school principals. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Doc

Family and Community Collaboration Tools and Resources


Promoting Cultural & Linguistic Competency Self-Assessment Doc


Engaging Culturally Diverse Families for Student Success Doc

Best Practices in Engaging Diverse Families Doc

Preparing Personnel to Meet the Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families Doc


Barrueco, S., Smith, S., & Stephens, S.A. (2015, July). Supporting parent engagement in linguistically diverse families to promote young children’s learning. (Child Care & Early Education Research Connections Brief). Doc

Ziemke, B. (2015). Engaging diverse families in education: Lessons learned. (PACER Center Brief). Doc

Halley, K.F. & Trujillo, M.T. (2013). Breaking down barriers: Successful transition planning for culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional students. Journal of Education Research and Innovation, 2(1), 1-14. Doc

Wessels, S. (2013). Home visits: A way of connecting with culturally and linguistically diverse families. Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education. 147. Doc

Conroy, P.W. (2012). Collaborating with cultural and linguistically diverse families of students in rural schools who receive special education services. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 31(3), 3-11.

Greene, G. (2011). Transition planning for culturally and linguistically diverse youth. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

Harry, B. (2008). Collaboration with culturally and linguistically diverse families: Ideal versus reality. Exceptional Children, 74(3), 372-388. Doc

Colombo, M.W. (2006). Building school partnerships with culturally and linguistically diverse families. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(4), 314-318. Doc

Kea, C., Campbell-Whatley, G.D., & Richards, H.V. (2006). Becoming culturally responsive educators: Rethinking teacher education pedagogy. (NCCREST Brief). Doc

LGBTQ Community Tools and Resources


There are currently no additional tools listed on this topic.


Considerations When Working with LGTB Students of Color Doc


Arredondo, M., Gray, C., Russell, S., Skiba, R., & Snapp, S. (2016). Documenting disparities for LGBT students: Expanding the collection and reporting of data on sexual orientation and gender identity. Bloomington, IN: The Equity Project at Indiana University. Doc

Gates, G.J. (2017, August). LGBT Data Collection Amid Social and Demographic Shifts of the US LGBT Community, American Journal of Public Health 107(8), 1220-1222. Doc

McKibben, S. (2016). Charting a course to transgender inclusion. Education Update, 58(1), 2. Doc

Snapp, S.D., Burdge, H., Licona, A.C., Moody, R.L., & Russell, S.T. (2015). Students’ perspectives on LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum. Equity & Excellence in Education, 48(2), 249-265.

Fisher, E.S. & Kennedy, K.S. (2012). Creating diverse and responsive classrooms. In Responsive school practices to support lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning students and families (pp. 53-70). New York, NY: Routledge.


Fiarman, S.E. (2016). Unconscious bias: When intentions aren’t good enough. Educational Leadership, 74(3), 10-15. Doc

Gabriel, M.L., Martinez, J., & Obiakor, F. (2016). Dismantling deficit thinking through teacher education. In A.F. Rotatori & F. Obiakor (Eds.), Critical issues in preparing effective early childhood special education teachers for the 21st century classroom: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 25-36). Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

Gilliam, W.S., Maupin, A.N., Reyes, C.R., Accavitti, M., & Shic, F. (2016, September). Do early educators’ implicit biases regarding sex and race relate to behavior expectation and recommendations of preschool expulsions and suspensions? (A Research Study Brief). Doc

Warikoo, N., Sinclair, S., Fei, J., & Jacoby-Senghor, D. (2016). Examining racial bias in education: A new approach. Educational Researcher, 45(9), 508-514.

Capatosto, K. (2015, July). Strategies for addressing implicit bias in early childhood education. (Kirwan Institute Issue Brief). Doc

Rudd, T. (2014, February). Racial disproportionality in school discipline: Implicit bias is heavily implicated. (Kirwan Institute Issue Brief). Doc

Schubert Center for Child Studies. (2014, November). Play, implicit bias and discrimination in early childhood: Implications for Child Development (Issue Brief). Doc

Simson, D. (2014). Exclusion, punishment, racism and our schools: A critical race theory perspective on school discipline. UCLA Law Review, 61, 506. Doc

Catillo, J. (2013). Tolerance in schools for Latino students: Dismantling the school-to-prison pipeline. 26, 43-58.
Available here

Dudley-Marling, C. & Paugh, P. (2010). Confronting the discourse on deficiencies. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2).

Carime Bersh, L. (2009). Deconstructing whiteness: Uncovering prospective teachers’ understanding of their culture- a Latina professor’s perspective. Multicultural Perspectives, 11(2), 107-112.

Chen, D.W. & Fraser, H. (2009). Becoming a culturally responsive early childhood educator: A tool to support reflection by teachers embarking on the anti-bias journey. Multicultural Perspectives, 11(2), 101-106.

Chang, D.F. & Demyan, A.L. (2007). Teachers’ stereotypes of Asian, Black, and White students. School Psychology Quarterly, 22(2), 91-114.

Harry, B. & Klingner, J. (2007). Discarding the deficit model. Educational Leadership, 64(5), 16-21.

Weiner, L. (2006). Challenging deficit thinking. Educational Leadership, 64(1), 42-43. Doc

Note: Resources with a Doc are available as a downloadable file